We're driving dissemination and translation of our research outcomes into clinical practice and policy through publishing in high quality, peer-reviewed journals, engaging with relevant peak professional associations (e.g. Australian Physiotherapy Association, RACGP), delivering professional development courses for graduate clinicians, presenting outcomes at our annual symposia and at other national and international conferences and meetings.




1. Latest topic-related publications by CRE researchers

Branislava Godic, Selin Akaraci, Rajith Vidanaarachchi, Kerry Nice, Sachith Seneviratne, Suzanne Mavoa, Ruth Hunter, Leandro Garcia, Mark Stevenson, Jasper Wijnands, Jason Thompson. A comparison of content from across contemporary Australian population health surveys, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, Volume 48, Issue 3, 2024, 100152, ISSN 1326-0200,

Vo, J., Gray, S., Traeger, A.C. et al. Can General Practitioner Opioid Prescribing to Compensated Workers with Low Back Pain Be Detected Using Administrative Payments Data? An Exploratory Study. J Occup Rehabil (2024).

Sterling, Michele (2023). Critically appraised paper: Neck-specific exercise with internet support for chronic whiplash-associated disorders is noninferior to neck-specific exercise at a physiotherapy clinic [Commentary]. Journal of Physiotherapy 70 (1) 66.

Nijs, Jo, Kosek, Eva, Chiarotto, Alessandro, Cook, Chad, Danneels, Lieven A, Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César, Hodges, Paul W, Koes, Bart, Louw, Adriaan, Ostelo, Raymond, Scholten-Peeters, Gwendolyne G M, Sterling, Michele, Alkassabi, Othman, Alsobayel, Hana, Beales, Darren, Bilika, Paraskevi, Clark, Jacqui R, De Baets, Liesbet, Demoulin, Christophe, de Zoete, Rutger M J, Elma, Ömer, Gutke, Annelie, Hanafi, Rikard, Hotz Boendermaker, Sabina, Huysmans, Eva, Kapreli, Eleni, Lundberg, Mari, Malfliet, Anneleen, Meziat Filho, Ney, ... George, Steven Z (2024). Nociceptive, neuropathic, or nociplastic low back pain? The low back pain phenotyping (BACPAP) consortium's international and multidisciplinary consensus recommendations. The Lancet Rheumatology

Tefera, Y.G., Gray, S., Nielsen, S. et al. Impact of Prescription Medicines on Work-Related Outcomes in Workers with Musculoskeletal Disorders or Injuries: A Systematic Scoping ReviewJ Occup Rehabil (2023).

Ritchie C, Smits E, Armfield N, Sterling M (2023) Objectively and subjectively measured physical activity levels in individuals with whiplash associated disorder and aged-matched healthy controls. PLoS ONE 18(10): e0292629.

Scott F. Farrell, Nigel R. Armfield, Peter J. Cabot, Rachel A. Elphinston, Paul Gray, Gunjeet Minhas, Martin R. Collyer, Michele Sterling,
C-reactive protein (CRP) is associated with chronic pain independently of biopsychosocial factors. The Journal of Pain, 2023, ISSN 1526-5900,

Daniel Griffiths, Michael Di Donato, Tyler J. Lane, Shannon Gray, Ross Iles, Peter M. Smith, Janneke Berecki-Gisolf, Alex Collie,
Transition between social protection systems for workers with long term health problems: A controlled retrospective cohort study,
SSM - Population Health, Volume 23, 2023, 101491, ISSN 2352-8273,

Rebbeck, Trudy; Bandong, Aila Nica; Leaver, Andrew; Ritchie, Carrie; Armfield, Nigel; Arora, Mohit; Cameron, Ian D.; Connelly, Luke B. Daniell, Roy; Gillett, Mark; Ingram, Rodney; Jagnoor, Jagnoor; Kenardy, Justin; Mitchell, Geoffrey; Refshauge, Kathryn; Scotti Requena, Simone Robins, Sarah; Sterling, Michele. Implementation of a risk-stratified, guideline-based clinical pathway of care to improve health outcomes following whiplash injury (Whiplash ImPaCT): a multicentre, randomized, controlled trial. PAIN 164(10):p 2216-2227, October 2023. | DOI: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000002940.

Farrell, Scott F.; Edmunds, Devon; Fletcher, John; Martine, Harry; Mohamed, Hashem; Liimatainen, Jenna; Sterling, Michele. Effectiveness of psychological interventions delivered by physiotherapists in the management of neck pain: a systematic review with meta-analysis. PAIN Reports 8(3):p e1076, May/June 2023. | DOI: 10.1097/PR9.0000000000001076.

de Zoete, RMJ, McMahon, KL, Coombes, JS, Sterling, M. The effects of physical exercise on structural, functional, and biochemical brain characteristics in individuals with chronic whiplash-associated disorder: A pilot randomized clinical trial. Pain Pract. 2023; 00: 1-17.

S. Macpherson, T.R. Rebbeck, S. Coates, K. Evans. Referral practices of recent graduate and experienced physiotherapists working in Australian primary care for people with musculoskeletal conditions, Musculoskeletal Science and Practice, Volume 64, 2023, 102745, ISSN 2468-7812,

Bhavya Adalja, Tammy Aplin, Michele Sterling & Venerina Johnston (2023): Implementation of the “clinical framework for the delivery of health services” by treating healthcare professionals: perspectives of regulators and insurers, Disability and Rehabilitation,
DOI: 10.1080/09638288.2023.2171496.

Sterling, Michele, Andersen, Tonny, Carroll, Linda, Connelly, Luke, Côté, Pierre, Curatolo, Michele, Grant, Genevieve, Jull, Gwendolen, Kasch, Helge, Ravn, Sophie Lykkegaard, MacDermid, Joy, Malmström, Eva-Maj, Rebbeck, Trudy, Söderlund, Anne, Treleaven, Julia, Walton, David M. and Westergren, Hans (2023). Recommendations for a core outcome measurement set for clinical trials in whiplash associated disorders. PAIN 164(10):p 2265-2272, October 2023. | DOI: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000002926.

Connelly, L., Courbage, C. On insurance and health risksGeneva Pap Risk Insur Issues Pract 48, 1–4 (2023),

Chloe-Emily Eather, Matthew J. Gullo, Rachel A. Elphinston. Reward drive moderates the effect of depression-related cognitive mechanisms on risk of prescription opioid misuse among patients with chronic non-cancer pain. The Journal of Pain, 2022, ISSN 1526-5900.

de Zoete, Rutger M. J., Coppieters, Iris, and Farrell, Scott F. (2022). Editorial: Whiplash-associated disorder-advances in pathophysiology, patient assessment and clinical management. Frontiers in Pain Research 3 1071810,

Farrell, Scott F., Kho, Pik-Fang, Lundberg, Mischa, Campos, Adrián I., Rentería, Miguel E., de Zoete, Rutger M.J., Sterling, Michele, Ngo, Trung Thanh, and Cuéllar-Partida, Gabriel (2022). A shared genetic signature for common chronic pain conditions and its impact on biopsychosocial traitsThe Journal of Pain.

Rutger M. J. de Zoete, Jane Nikles, Jeff S. Coombes, Patrick Onghena & Michele Sterling (2022) The effectiveness of aerobic versus strengthening exercise therapy in individuals with chronic whiplash-associated disorder: a randomised single case experimental design studyDisability and Rehabilitation, DOI: 10.1080/09638288.2022.2127937

Nikles, J., Evans, K., Hams, A., and Sterling, M. (2022). A systematic review of N-of-1 trials and single case experimental designs in physiotherapy for musculoskeletal conditionsMusculoskeletal Science and Practice 62 102639.

Shraim, Muath A.; Sluka, Kathleen A.; Sterling, Michele; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Argoff, Charles; Bagraith, Karl S.; Baron, Ralf; Brisby, Helena; Carr, Daniel B.; Chimenti, Ruth L.; Courtney, Carol A.; Curatolo, Michele; et al. Features and methods to discriminate between mechanism-based categories of pain experienced in the musculoskeletal system: a Delphi expert consensus study. PAIN 163(9):p 1812-1828, September 2022. | DOI: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000002577.

Nikles, Jane, Johnston, Amy, van Driel, Mieke, Perez, Siegfried, Ritchie, Carrie, Elphinston, Rachel, and Sterling, Michele (2022). A systematic review of the effectiveness of interventions to improve opioid prescribing in ED for acute non-admitted musculoskeletal pain. Recover Injury Research Centre, Brisbane, QLD, Australia, 6 October 2022.

Carrie Ritchie, Kelly Clanchy, Michele Sterling, Robyn Tate, Esther J. Smits, Melissa Day, Jane Nikles, Jenna Liimatainen & Sean M. Tweedy (2022) Evaluation of a physical activity promotion intervention for adults with whiplash associated disorders: a single-case experimental design study, Disability and Rehabilitation, 44:23, 7255-7268, DOI: 10.1080/09638288.2021.1989062.

Gopinath, B., Jagnoor, J., Kifley, A. et al. Health literacy and recovery following a non-catastrophic road traffic injuryBMC Public Health 22, 1380 (2022),

Rachel A. Elphinston, Atiyeh Vaezipour, James A. Fowler, Trevor G. Russell & Michele Sterling (2022): Psychological therapy using virtual reality for treatment of driving phobia: a systematic review, Disability and Rehabilitation, DOI: 10.1080/09638288.2022.2069293.

Elphinston, Rachel A., Pager, Sue, Brown, Kelly, Sterling, Michele, Fatehi, Farhad, Gray, Paul, Hipper, Linda, Cahill, Linda, and Connor, Jason P. (2022). The first step in co-design of a digital brief intervention to reduce prescription opioid related harm, informed by patient lived experiences: a qualitative analysis.

Yates, Eloise, Buckley, Lisa, Sterling, Michele, Cruwys, Tegan, Ashton-James, Claire, Rankin, Renee, and Elphinston, Rachel (2022). Interest in digital peer-delivered interventions and preferences to improve pain self-efficacy amongst patients with chronic pain: a mixed methods co-design study.

Fundaun, Joel, Kolski, Melissa, Baskozos, Georgios, Dilley, Andrew, Sterling, Michele, and Schmid, Annina B. (2022). Nerve pathology and neuropathic pain after whiplash injury: a systematic review and meta-analysisPain 163 (7) e789-e811.

Yates, Eloise, Buckley, Lisa, Sterling, Michele, Cruwys, Tegan, Ashton-James, Claire, Rankin, Renee, and Elphinston, Rachel (2022). Interest in Digital Peer-Delivered Interventions and Preferences to Improve Pain Self-Efficacy and Reduce Loneliness amongst Patients with Chronic Pain: A Mixed Methods Co-Design Study (Preprint). JMIR Formative Research.

Bandong, Aila Nica, Rebbeck, Trudy, Mackey, Martin, Sterling, Michele, Kelly, Joan, Ritchie, Carrie, and Leaver, Andrew (2022). Selective acceptance of acute whiplash guidelines: a qualitative analysis of perceptions of health professionals in AustraliaDisability and Rehabilitation 1-8.

Elphinston, Rachel A., Pager, Sue, Fatehi, Farhad, Sterling, Michele, Brown, Kelly, Gray, Paul, Hipper, Linda, Cahill, Lauren , Ziadni, Maisa, Worthy, Peter, and Connor, Jason P. (2022). Applying patient and health professional preferences as part of co-designing a new digital brief intervention to reduce prescription opioid harm.

Hung KKC, Kifley A, Brown K, Jagnoor J, Craig A, Gabbe B, Derrett S, Collie A, Dinh M, Gopinath B, Cameron ID; FISH Investigators (2022). Psychological Distress, Pain and Insurance Claims Negatively Affect Long-Term Health-Related Quality of Life After Road Traffic InjuriesJournal of Rehabilitation Medicine54Jul 5;54:jrm00310. doi: 10.2340/jrm.v54.30.

Papic C, Kifley A, Craig A, Grant G, Collie A, Pozzato I, Gabbe B, Derrett S, Rebbeck T, Jagnoor J, Cameron ID  (2022). Factors associated with long term work incapacity following a non-catastrophic road traffic injury: analysis of a two-year prospective cohort studyBMC Public Health Volume 22, Article number: 1498. . doi: 10.1186/s12889-022-13884-5

Kosek, Eva, Clauw, Daniel, Nijs, Jo, Baron, Ralf, Gilron, Ian, Harris, Richard E., Mico, Juan-Antonio, Rice, Andrew S C, and Sterling, Michele (2022). Reply to CohenPain 163 (4) e607-e608.

Elphinston, Rachel A., Sullivan, Michael J. L., Sterling, Michele, Connor, Jason. P., Baranoff, John A., Tan, Dylan, and Day, Melissa A. (2022). Pain medication beliefs mediate the relationship between pain catastrophizing and opioid prescription use in patients with chronic non-cancer painJournal of Pain 23 (3) 379-389.

Griffin AR, Sterling M, Ritchie C, Kifley A, Jagnoor J, Cameron ID, Rebbeck T. Do expectations of recovery improve risk assessment for people with whiplash-associated disorders? Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort studyBMC Musculoskelet Disord 23, 395 (2022), . doi: 10.1186/s12891-022-05242-8.

Nikles, Jane, Keijzers, Gerben, Mitchell, Geoffrey, Farrell, Scott F., Perez, Siegfried, Schug, Stephan, Ware, Robert S., McLean, Samuel A., Connelly, Luke B., and Sterling, Michele (2022). Pregabalin vs placebo to prevent chronic pain after whiplash injury in at-risk individuals: Results of a feasibility study for a large randomised controlled trialPain 163 (2) E274-E284.